Portland cement clinker is a dark grey nodular material made by heating ground limestone and clay at a temperature of about 1400 °C 1500 °C. The nodules are ground up to a fine powder to produce cement, with a small amount of gypsum added to control the setting properties.
Therefore, cement emissions depend largely on the proportion of clinker used in each tonne of cement. The type of fuel and efficiency of equipment used during clinker production also have an impact. Meanwhile, the floor area of the world’s buildings is projected to double in the next 40 years.